Age-Related Macular Degeneration


Inotek believes that the Company’s portfolio of proprietary poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have the potential to benefit patients with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD).

Age-related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss and blindness in people over the age of 65, affecting 25-30 million people worldwide. There are two types of the disease – dry AMD and wet AMD. Dry AMD often progresses into wet AMD, a more advanced form of disease strongly linked to major vision loss.

The macula is the area of the eye where sharp vision occurs, allowing the eye to see fine details. In AMD, damage to the macula reduces vision in the center of the retina, creating blurriness in the center of the patient’s visual field and potentially leading to the development of a blindspot in the middle of the field of vision. The dry form of AMD is caused by the thinning of retinal tissues, breakdown of light-sensitive cells and buildup of fatty tissue behind the macula. Visual function may slowly decrease as the disease progresses. Dry AMD often transitions into wet AMD. In wet AMD, the buildup of abnormal and fragile blood vessels behind the retina leads to leakage into the retinal space, which can then physically move the macula, affecting vision dramatically and quickly.

There is no current cure for wet or dry AMD, and pharmacologic treatment options, available only for the wet form of the disease, are highly invasive. New therapeutics that address underlying pathophysiology in AMD and prevent the associated vision loss are needed.

Order eye drops with home delivery

Ordering glaucoma macular degeneration eye drops online is always convenient! Here you can purchase medicines in a few clicks and get them delivered in the shortest possible time. We accept and process orders around the clock.

Our mission is simple: to make medicines affordable. We have shortened the path of medicines from eye pharmaceutical companies to consumers as much as possible. Working directly with manufacturers and distributors, we not only provide eye care medicines at low prices but also guarantee the authenticity of goods.

In addition to the low prices, we are also working hard to expand the range of medicines for glaucoma and macular degeneration.

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Types of macular degeneration

There are two types of macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD):

  1. Dry (atrophic) macular degeneration. A common form of the disease leads to a gradual loss of vision. The disease proceeds imperceptibly, this type of AMD occurs in 85-90% of patients. The reason is the gradual death of light-sensitive cells, which leads to a slow loss of vision. Dry degeneration cannot be cured with medications. It’s treated with minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, which slow down the disease. The disease progresses imperceptibly, therefore you should see a doctor regularly;
  2. Wet (neovascular) macular degeneration: It’s a more serious disease that progresses rapidly. This disease is the main cause of vision loss in old age and occurs in 10-15% of patients with AMD. Wet (neovascular) macular degeneration is caused by blood vessels starting to grow in the retina. They often leak blood and fluid into the macula. This can lead to irreversible damage to the macular area. Wet AMD affects both myopia and hyperopia. Wet AMD is the leading cause of severe vision loss in people over the age of 50.

Causes and risk factors

With AMD, the pathological process is localized in the central zone of the retina. The disease usually affects both eyes at once and has a slow long-term course with steady progression.

Failure to seek the necessary help due to a long asymptomatic course of the pathological process, and sometimes an incorrect diagnosis of the disease lead to a loss of professional skills and work capacity.

The risk factors for AMD:

  • Age-related changes in the body;
  • Heredity;
  • Arterial hypertension;
  • Light skin and light (usually blue) color of the iris;
  • Smoking;
  • Reactions of oxidative stress;
  • Lack of vitamins and antioxidants in the body, deficiency of carotenoids in the macula;
  • High level of solar radiation.

In addition, a clear relationship with age-related macular degeneration was revealed in cases of damage to the carotid arteries by atherosclerotic plaques, diabetes mellitus, overweight, metabolic disorders.

Clinical experience shows that older women (60 years and older) suffer from AMD twice as often as their male peers.

Stages of AMD

  • Early AMD. In early AMD, there are either small drusen or a small number of medium-sized druses. At this stage, you may not have any symptoms or decreased vision;
  • Intermediate AMD. At this stage, medium-sized drusen or one or more large drusen can be detected. Many patients also have no symptoms. Some patients notice a blurred spot in the central field of view, some may require more light when reading, etc.;
  • Late changes in dry AMD. This stage is accompanied by druses, the destruction of the photosensitive cells of the macula and “geographic atrophy”, which causes a blurred spot in the central field of view, which over time can increase and become darker.

AMD diagnostics

A number of signs of age-related macular degeneration may appear before immediate visual impairment. Oonly an ophthalmological examination makes it possible to detect them in a timely manner and take appropriate measures for treatment.

To diagnose AMD today, doctors use a whole arsenal of traditional and innovative diagnostic methods. These include:

  • Visometry with tables to establish visual acuity;
  • Ophthalmoscopy with an instrumental examination of the fundus;
  • Visocontrastometry with an accurate assessment of the visual analyzer;
  • Computer perimetry with the study of residual fields of view;
  • Fluorescence angiography to assess retinal vessels;
  • Optical coherent retinotomography for obtaining optical sections of any part of the fundus;
  • Color stereo photography.


Modern methods of treatment make it possible to prevent loss and even improve vision. Early detection and treatment of glaucoma and macular degeneration is extremely important.

  • Intraocular drug administration: The use of eye drops stops or prevents occlusion. This type of treatment allows to prevent loss of vision, improve and stabilize vision;
  • Photodynamic therapy: The goal of this treatment is to prevent new vessel blockage and retinal bleeding;
  • Supportive treatment: Vitamins, minerals and antioxidants as a dietary supplement play a large role in treatment.